In 1794 a survey crew described what is now called Glacier Bay as a five-mile indent in a glacier that stretched “as far as the eye could distinguish.” In 1879 when scientist/naturalist John Muir visited the area, he found the ice had retreated more than 30 miles, creating an actual bay. Photo courtesy of Glacier Bay Lodge & Tours. To visit Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve is to visit true wildness. The idea was opposed by the U.S. Geological Survey, which reported that the area had potential for mineral extraction. Location: Southeast Alaska Park Tally: 41/59 Orientation: The National Park Service describes the beauty and rareness of Glacier Bay perfectly in this narrative: “Glacier Bay is a homeland, a living laboratory, a national park, a designated wilderness, a biosphere reserve, and a world heritage site. A center where researchers from multiple disciplines collaborate to conduct management and ecosystem directed. Glacier Bay Fact Sheet. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve was named a national monument in 1925. Earthquake-induced landslides have been significant forces for change, inducing tsunamis. The park boundary excludes Gustavus at the mouth of Glacier Bay. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve contains some of the world's most impressive tidewater glaciers. To hunt and trap, you must have all required licenses and permits and follow all other state regulations. There are seven tidewater glaciers in the park: Margerie Glacier, Grand Pacific Glacier, McBride Glacier, Lamplugh Glacier, Johns Hopkins Glacier, Gilman Glacier, and LaPerouse Glacier. Enjoy a beautiful montage of the spectacular sights, sounds, and meanings of Glacier Bay National Park. Two examples are the Johns Hopkins Glacier which, according to observations in 2012, has been advancing at the rate of 10 to 15 ft (3.0 to 4.6 m) per day, and the Margerie Glacier which is stable, neither advancing nor retreating. Where some maps show glaciers, only fjords remain; in other places, shallow straits have become portages. The base was never used. Mafic dikes up to 20 feet in width occur throughout the area. Considering the state of ice around the globe, getting yourself up to Alaska’s Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve sooner rather than later is a wise choice. [17] Trips generally take six days and pass through Kluane National Park and Reserve in the Yukon and Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park in British Columbia. The bay has experienced at least four major glacial advances and four major retreats and serves as an outdoor research laboratory. Three lodges and one outfitter can provide transportation and services for fishing and hunting small game and waterfowl. By 1750, that ice began to retreat. [17], According to the Köppen climate classification system, Glacier Bay National Park has six climate zones; Subarctic With Cool Summers and Year Around Rainfall (Dfc), Subpolar Oceanic (Cfc), Temperate Oceanic (Cfb), Humid Continental Mild Summer Wet All Year (Dfb), Humid Continental Dry Cool Summer (Dsb), and Warm Summer Mediterranean (Csb). Muir came to Alaska to learn about glaciers as a means of understanding the formation of the glaciated landscape of the Yosemite Valley. The park’s titular glaciers are certainly being impacted by climate change: There is 11 percent less glacial ice in Glacier Bay today than there was in the 1950s. In the meantime, the Wrangell-St. Elias proposal was set aside in favor of expansions to the east for bear habitat and to the west to protect the Gulf of Alaska coastline. [8]:K49-K50, According to MacKevett et al., "The most extensive and best gold placer deposits...are in the beach sands near Lituya Bay." [28], In 1958 survey crews found a rich deposit of copper and nickel ore under the Brady Icefield. [41], No Park Service personnel were assigned to the monument until 1949, when a seasonal ranger was stationed at Bartlett Cove. The vast majority of visitors to the park arrive on cruise ships, which sail up the Inside Passage of the Alaskan Panhandle to or from Anchorage. As the glacier reaches the water, the water can erode the underside of the glacier, resulting in spectacular shows as the glacier shears off, calving off giant ice bergs into the sea. I have just modified 3 external links on Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, large natural area in southeastern Alaska, U.S., on the Gulf of Alaska. Holocene and historic glacier activity and climate change in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve . Lower Glacier Bay is a transitional zone, and upper Glacier Bay is cold and snowy. Cooper returned to Glacier Bay in 1922, wrote a paper for the Ecological Society of America in which he proposed that Glacier Bay be protected as a national monument. Other experiences in the park include whale watching for orcas and minke whales, guided and unguided kayaking, flightseeing from Gustavus, and attending National Park Service programs, which are offered daily. Beginning in 1969 cruise ships became regular visitors to the monument. A place of hope--for the continued wisdom, restraint, and humility to preserve a sample of wild America, the world as it was. Glacial gravels extend up to 2000 feet up the mountain slopes. [41] The Glacier Bay Lodge was built to accommodate guests in 1966. [16] Scientists working in the park and preserve hope to learn how glacial activity relates to climate change. An outcrop west of Tidal Inlet includes a sandstone, graywacke and limestone of unknown age. Facing an approaching deadline imposed by ANCSA to resolve land allotment and seeing delays in the proposed Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) in Congress that was intended to make a final settlement, President Jimmy Carter used his authority under the Antiquities Act to proclaim fifteen National Park Service units in Alaska on December 1, 1978. The spectacular scenery and wildlife of Glacier Bay make it a highlight of any Alaska cruise. Seven tidewater glaciers spill out of the mountains and fill the sea with icebergs of all shapes, sizes and shades of blue, making Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve an icy wilderness renowned worldwide. President Calvin Coolidge proclaimed the area around Glacier Bay a national monument under the Antiquities Act on February 25, 1925. In response Cooper and the Ecological Society undertook a letter-writing campaign that supported the park Service and caused Coolidge to add some portions of mature forest to the park's boundaries. [6], The Park is named for its abundant tidewater and terrestrial glaciers, numbering 1,045 in total.[20]. [35] A salmon cannery was established in 1900 at Dundas Bay, employing native, white, and Chinese laborers and operating until 1931. Muir sent dispatches back to San Francisco to be published in the San Francisco Bulletin in both 1879 and 1880, eventually collecting these stories, accounts of his third and fourth trips in 1890 and 1899, and later lectures and articles into the 1915 book Travels in Alaska, promoting Glacier Bay and the Inside Passage. Regions of the park closest to the Gulf of Alaska have a relatively mild climate with significant rainfall and comparatively low snowfall. Alaska Airlines and … Gustavus, AK However, the final bill contained a number of significant exemptions, and the Newmont claim has never been resolved, although no mining activity has been proposed since the 1970s. [5] The national preserve encompasses 58,406 acres (91.3 sq mi; 236.4 km2) of public land to the immediate northwest of the park, protecting a portion of the Alsek River with its fish and wildlife habitats, while allowing sport hunting. Over the past 260 years it has withdrawn nearly 60 miles to the head of the bay. The preserve lands comprise a small area at Dry Bay — the majority of Glacier Bay lands are national park lands. [16] Other travelers come on white-water rafting trips, putting in on the Tatshenshini River at Dalton Post in the Yukon Territory and taking out at the Dry Bay Ranger Station in the Glacier Bay National Preserve. Covering 3.3 million acres of mountains, glaciers, wild coastlines, and fjords, Glacier Bay is one of the world's largest international protected areas. The park's northwestern boundary, which also abuts Tongass National Forest, runs in the valley of the Alsek River to Dry Bay. This is known as the Reid Inlet gold area. Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve: Visit to Canada - See 1,372 traveller reviews, 2,400 candid photos, and great deals for Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, AK, at Tripadvisor. How deep? [21] (High tide-water glaciers also include Riggs Glacier, Reid Glacier, Lituya Glacier, and North Crillon Glacier. If ever we needed a place to intrigue and inspire us, this is it. Glacier Bay is a powerful place that also inspires cultural expression in the scientist, the artist, the resident, the traveler, and those who make their livelihood from the sea. The LeRoy Mine was the largest though, discovered in 1938 by Gustavus founder and resident A.L. The glacier has continued to recede at a rapid rate. [45], The Kluane-Wrangell-St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek transborder park system comprising Kluane, Wrangell-St Elias, Glacier Bay and Tatshenshini-Alsek parks, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979 for the spectacular glacier and icefield landscapes as well as for the importance of grizzly bears, caribou and Dall sheep habitat. During some summers there are ferries to the small community of Gustavus or directly to the marina at Bartlett Cove. The Canada–US border approaches to within 15 miles (24 km) of the ocean in the St. Elias Mountains at Mount Fairweather, the park's tallest peak at 15,300 feet (4,700 m), transitioning to the Fairweather Range from there southwards. Halibut are frequently esteemed by deep-sea fishers and in rivers and lakes Dolly Varden and rainbow trout provide sport. Alaska’s Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is characterized by towering mountains, spectacular tidewater glaciers, deep fjords, and lush temperate rainforest. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve lies west of Juneau, AK and can only be reached by plane or boat. The final ANILCA legislation, signed into law by Carter on December 2, 1980, established Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve from the national monument. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is an American national park located in Southeast Alaska west of Juneau. The Brady Icefield caps the Fairweather Range on a peninsula extending from the ocean to Glacier Bay, which extends from Icy Strait to the Canada–US border at Grand Pacific Glacier, cutting off the western part of the park. Glacier Bay's story is one of dynamic change in the wake of dramatic glacial movements. Mining of these sands started in 1894, employing up to 200 men by 1896. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is a vibrant ecosystem made up of a variety of terrestrial and marine species. Protecting this place for the enjoyment and inspiration of this and future generations. Alaska, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. [13] Additionally, parts of the region are undergoing post-glacial rebound (also known as isostatic rebound), the process in which land rises after the weight of the glacier has been removed. The "preserve" portion of the park covers a tiny portion of the overall park, just 58,406 acres, and it's located in the extreme northwestern corner. The expedition noted significant glacial retreat. Glacier Bay is a homeland, a living laboratory, a national park, a designated wilderness, a biosphere reserve, and a world heritage site. Most archaeological evidence is from the last 200 years. They operated a two-stamp mill and an aerial tramway. [28] The park and preserve hosts many outdoor activities such as hiking, camping, mountaineering, kayaking, rafting, fishing, and bird-watching. Here, gargantuan ice sheets continue to move, shaping and transforming the landscape. A granitic stock is exposed in Dundas Bay. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. [8], Glacial advances occurred 7,000, 5,000 and 500 years ago, with the last extending to the entrance of the bay, where it left a huge semicircular terminal moraine. By the late 1930s Ernest Gruening, the director of the Department of Territories and Island Possessions and future governor of Alaska, suggested that the entire region be protected in a single unit extending up the Saint Elias Range to the Wrangell Range. Read the latest issue of the official 40-page color visitor's guide to Glacier Bay National Park. The substance of Gruening's idea would not be realized until 1978, when Wrangell-St. Elias National Monument would be proclaimed. "[8]:K27-K28,K46, A molybdenite deposit occurs on The Nunatak in quartz veins associated with a quartz monzonite porphyry,[9][10] which includes gold at 0.04 ounces per ton, and silver at 7.07 ounces per ton. Mountains rise right from its tidewater up to three vertical miles. This glacial retreat has exposed a resilient land that hosts a. Top Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Parks & Nature Attractions: See reviews and photos of parks, gardens & other nature attractions in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska on Tripadvisor. Glacier Bay National Preserve is accessed by air, and involves a 50-mile air taxi flight from Yakutat. Ecosystems in the park are wet tundra, Alpine tundra, coastal forest, and glaciers and icefields.[26]. The advance and recession of the park's glaciers has been extensively documented since La Perouse visited the bay in 1786. [40] In 1955 the area around Gustavus was removed from the monument and returned to the public domain, together with 10,184 acres (4,121 ha) at Excursion Inlet. [24] In 1879 naturalist John Muir found that the ice had retreated almost all the way up the bay, a distance of around 48 miles (77 km). Anchors. PO Box 140 The area’s conservation status was at the time enlarged by 523,000 acres by US President Jimmy Carter in 1980, which is when the Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve was formally established. Prepared for the National Park Service, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve . 99826, Glacier Bay's story is one of dynamic change in the wake of dramatic glacial, For the Tlingit, Glacier Bay is woven into the tapestry of their lives, Glacier Bay continues to offer inspiration. Entrance Fees Unlike most national parks, there is NO entrance fee to enter Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. 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